Friday, January 15, 2010

ADDERALL NEUROTOXICITY


Can chronic use of therapeutic doses of Adderall, Vyvanse, or Dexedrine (amphetamines) cause brain damage?

The bottom line is we don't know. However there is a body of research that raises some concerns but gives no strong conclusive evidence either way. A comprehensive review article was published in February of 2009 "Literature Review: Update on Amphetamine Neurotoxicity and Its Relevance to the Treatment of ADHD" and is available free (1).

A worrisome study in monkeys in 2005 by Ricaurte found some evidence suggesting dopamine nerve damage in areas of the brain involved in ADHD dysregulation and amphetamine therapeutic effects (2). Some of the monkeys were given doses that are normally given to humans. However, multiple similar studies in rodents did not find evidence of this damage in usual dosage ranges that are given to humans. In contrast to amphetamines, high dose methylphenidate (Ritalin, Concerta, Focalin, Daytrana) studies appeared to have lower risk for brain toxic effects (3, 4).

Stimulant treatment of ADHD during childhood appears to reduce the risk of substance abuse that is otherwise associated with ADHD.(5, 6) Also children with ADHD who had not been treated with stimulants have smaller brain white matter volume than children with ADHD who had been medicated or children without ADHD. Stimulant treatment in children may actually increase brain growth and development.(7) However, older rodents, when given methamphetamine in doses that are known to be toxic to younger rodents and humans, had more toxic brain reactions than younger rodents. They also had brain levels of amphetamine that was twice as high as the levels in younger rodents when given the same dose. Natural aging processes reduce dopamine production greatly. Older humans may be at greater risk of toxic effects of amphetamine

No controlled studies have examined the adverse behavioral, cognitive, neurophysiological effects of years, much less decades, of chronic amphetamine treatment. Neuroimaging with PET and MRI techniques are becoming increasingly useful in measuring brain anatomy and function in living human beings to explore for brain damage in humans treated with amphetamine. We look forward to the coming evidence to make more informed treatment recommendations to our patients with ADHD.



1.(Free) Literature Review: Update on Amphetamine Neurotoxicity and Its Relevance to the Treatment of ADHD

9 comments:

metacogniscient said...

Could you cite the rest of your sources listed? Thanks

Anonymous said...

Gгеat article, exactly what I needed.


Here is my website :: no credit check loans

Anonymous said...

"Yes, you can draw"And, what's more you can draw anything you want to draw, people, places, cartoons, motorbikes, cars, dogs, just about anything if you take a little time to learn how. Significant lines must redrawn to become broader and the guidelines must then be erased. If you do not add shadow at all your character may appear to be floating in mid air.

My weblog - how to draw manga

Anonymous said...

In its original sense this was a group of individuals defined mainly by their membership of some formal body,
but the concept has been expanded to encompass the
customers of a range of retail outlets. Bunches of cables
could be a headache otherwise correctly tied. The self-tie bow ties is a test
of skill in tying it.

Also visit my web site ... how to tie a tie step by step

Anonymous said...

I have read so many posts concerning the blogger lovers
however this piece of writing is really a pleasant post, keep it up.


Here is my blog; http://eating-for-energy.com

Anonymous said...

It may be better understood and applied as consistency and repetition.

Furniture, lighting elements, statuary, and stonework are all examples of
items that can be layered throughout the outdoor space to create a
look that appears to have evolved over time. A landscaping career is a great way to get outdoors, use your artistic talent, and create something
beautiful and lasting.

Also visit my homepage; http://landscapedesignhq.org/

Anonymous said...

Home Made Skin Tag Removal - 5 Tips For Home Skin Tags Removal Do
you have problems with skin tags and don't know what to do. Do this method up to four times a day until the skin tag falls off. 'We usually have two or
three people in the room, no-one has time, so we have one person tightening the body and another giving a treatment on the face'.

Also visit my blog post freezing off skin tags

Anonymous said...

First of all, unlike having to eat 6 times per day every day your training
should only be done 1 time per day 3 days per week with at least
one day of rest between training days. You can
readily adopt a complete training plan that allows you to work on
all of your muscle groups. So if you are also struggling
from the same problem then there are some useful tips for
healthy weight gain and to put on some extra pounds on your body so as to help you to look a lot
better.

Here is my website; how to lose hormonal weight gain
**

Anonymous said...

Ahaa, its nice discussion regarding this paragraph here at this webpage, I have read all that,
so now me also commenting at this place.

Also visit my homepage best allergy medicines (bestallergymedicinehq.org)